Touring bikes are often robust, sturdy and comfortable bikes, built to withstand touring across country with heavy loads of kit hung on them. Such as a tent, cooking tools such as a camping stove and pans. Cycling kit, first aid kit, casual clothing, towels, food and whatever else you may want to take with you. A map maybe?!
The position of the touring bike can vary depending on the rider and which position they feel most comfortable in. This can vary from drop handlebars with upright stems to flat handbars. This is down to personal preference.
The geometry on a touring bike is often more relaxed and id built with comfort in mind. The wheelbase is often longer to help this along with its stability. A touring bike is not built with speed, aerodynamics and lightweight materials like a road bike or race bike. Equally these kind of bikes could not do the job as effectively as a tourer.